c. 1500 BC
Mortimus (the Meddling Monk) helped build Stonehenge with gravity lifts.
[According to his diary in The Time Meddler. Although this fits better with the building phase seen in The People's Temple, that story covers the building of what we see today and is notably gravity-lift-free. Perhaps Mortimus helped with an earlier wooden structure similar to the stone structure with which we are familiar. Mortimus is first named in No Future.]
est. 1500 BC
The stone containing the Ragman lands on Earth. It is incorporated into a stone circle at Cirbury.
[According to Rags (p. 160).]
c. 1500 BC
This was the Early Ikkaban Period of Yemayan history.
[According to a book published by Benny in SLEEPY (p.102).]
c. 11th December 1500 BC
The People's Temple (Short Trips)
The Great Bear and the Deer Man conquered huge areas of Britain so they could rebuild the Great Temple (Stonehenge) in stone. Their plans were put back some time by the intervention of the Eighth Doctor and Sam.
[The earliest parts of Stonehenge were built around 2800 BC. This final building activity was 1600-1400 BC. The Doctor initially reckons it's about 4,500 years before Sam's time - so c. 2,500 BC (p. 300), but he later finds out that its not the exact period he thought it was. It's 10 days before the winter solstice (p. 292, 317), making it probably 11th December.]
r. 1417 BC
Erimem is born, a daughter to the Pharaoh of Egypt.
[In The Eye of the Scorpion (ep. 2), she says that a year ago she was 16 years old.]
c. 1400 BC
The Eye of the Scorpion
The Pharaoh's oldest son dies when the axle on his chariot snaps. A fever takes his youngest son less than a month later. The remaining son is killed when he is bitten by an asp inside his own rooms, though he fights off the poison for 5 days. Six months after the first death, the Pharaoh himself is killed by an ambush. This leaves his daughter Erimem the heir to the throne. Not long after, she is ambushed, but is saved by two strangers. The strangers help her defeat an army of mercenaries who are after the throne. After defeating them, Erimem leaves Egypt by magic, and a previously unknown son of the late Pharaoh, Fayum, becomes Pharaoh.
[The Doctor estimates that it's 1400 BC (ep. 1), based on the hieroglyphics. Peri says it's 3000 years before Napoleon (ep. 4).]
c. 1366 BC
Ace spent considerable time in Ancient Egypt. At first she became the bodyguard of Lord Sedjet for six months. She then left and became a waitress when the army wouldn't let her join. She left that to join a group of Set worshippers resisting Pharaoh Akhenaten. She was responsible for the Armarna Graffito, wiping out the names Aten and Akhenaten from a Stelae and leaving her own message - “Ace was here”, before leaving through a space-time rift.
[The year Ace arrived is given in a section heading (p.31). It's also said to be 7 years after Akhenaten's coronation (p.80), which would make it approximately 1345 BC if we used real-world dates.]
c. 1300 BC
Ramses I orders that a canal be dug between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
["Over two thousand years" before All-Consuming Fire (p. 140, set in 1887). Ramses reigned between 1320 BC and 1291 BC.]
c. 1235 BC
The [fourth] Doctor claims to have met Theseus.
[The Horns of Nimon. The date is that of Theseus assuming the throne of Athens.]
r. 1201 BC
Troilus is born to the Trojan royal family.
[In The Myth Makers he is “about the same age” as Vicki (ep.2) and “seventeen next birthday” (ep.3).]
r. 1194 BC
The Trojan War begins when Melanaus challenges Paris to personal combat for abducting Helen and Paris refuses.
[Ten years before The Myth Makers (ep.1).]
r. 1193 BC
The Rani stole some of a brain fluid that promotes sleep from soldiers in the Trojan war. This made everyone more aggressive.
[This is mentioned in Mark of the Rani ep.1. Presumably this was early in the war. Arbitrarily dated as nine years before The Myth Makers.]
h. 1184 BC
The Myth Makers
The First Doctor becomes involved in the final phase of the Trojan war. Captured outside Troy, he is given a choice between death and helping to win the war. In response, he invents the legendary Trojan Horse, leading to the fall of Troy. His companion Vicki falls in love with Troilus and changes her name to Cressida before helping to rebuild Troy. Katarina, handmaiden to the Prophetess Cassandra, disappears with the Doctor and Steven.
[The Myth Makers. The date is the traditional date of the fall of Troy. The Doctor also mentions these events in The Unquiet Dead. Apocrypha Bipedium is set shortly afterwards in 1183 BC, so we've used the traditional date of 1184BC.]
c. 1183 BC
Apocrypha Bipedium (Short Trips: Companions)
The harassed survivors of Troy briefly meet the Eighth Doctor, Charley Pollard, and William Shakespeare. This inspires them to travel to what would become England and settle there.
[The date is given on page 43.]
c. 1144 BC
The Doctor is given a copy of the I Ching by Wen Wang, ruler of the state of Chou, for services rendered.
[We see the I Ching in Timewyrm: Revelation (p. 14), and the Doctor mentions its origin. The date is not stated, but Wen Wang was imprisoned for a period of three years from 1144, which is when he traditionally wrote the I Ching. So, this has to have been after his imprisonment.]
c. 1100 BC
The Sands of Time
Nyssa arrives via an Osiran time corridor, and is mistaken for Nephthys. She is mummified and entombed in the black pyramid at Saqqara.
[This is "three thousand years" before 1896 (p. 100) and "many hundreds of years"' after the tomb robbery (2,000 BC, p. 93).]
c. 800 BC
A bronze age warrior chieftain is buried in the mound that will eventually be called Devils Hump, starting a long string of pagan rituals at the site.
[According to Professor Horner in The Dæmons.]
Rome was founded.
[This is the traditional date, as given by the Doctor in State of Change (p. 44).]
c. 610 BC
Necho II orders the re-digging of the Canal of the Pharaohs, after it has been disused for a century. 100,000 men die during the work.
[According to All-Consuming Fire (p. 140). This was nine centuries after Ramses dug the first one. Necho reigned sometime between 617 and 592 BC.]
The War Lords steal a Grecian battlefield.
[The War Games]
Scaroth's fifth segment posed as an ancient Greek
[City of Death.]
The Dæmons influenced Greek culture.
The Doctor wrote some of Greek literature.
[Or so he claims in Cat's Cradle: Witch Mark (p. 112).]
est. 600 BC
The Rani visited Earth during the Dark Ages and stole more brain fluid, thus promoting aggression.
[Mark of the Rani. We've chosen an entirely arbitrary date.]
c. 530 BC
King David builds the Temple in Jerusalem.
[According to Gemelius in Byzantium! (p. 50) this was between 500 and 600 BC. In reality, David ruled between 1010 and 970 BC, and the temple was built by his son Solomon between 966 and 959 BC. In 500 BC, the Jews were mostly in exile in Babylon. Perhaps Gemelius is actually referring to the rebuilding of the Temple under Ezra and Zerubbabel between 536 BC and 516 BC.]
c. 519 BC
The Urbankans returned to Earth for the penultimate time, kidnapping Athenian philosopher Bigon, aged 56. This was the first visit in which they encountered significant resistance.
[Mentioned in Four to Doomsday.]
c. 510 BC
The Doctor replaced Sun Tzu as the Chinese Emperor's military advisor, but failed because he held conflict resolution seminars instead of fighting. Sun Tzu is traditionally said to have lived between 544 BC and 496 BC.
[Or so the seventh Doctor claims in Set Piece (p.146)]
c. 440 BC
The Eternals take an Athenian trireme
[Said to be during the time of Pericles (who lived 499-429 BC) in Enlightenment. We've picked an arbitrary date in that period.]
ALT 331 BC
The Book of Shadows (Decalog)
An alien called Rhakotis crash-lands near Alexandria. He uses time-travel portals to steal books to pay for gold to repair his engines. He acquires The Ancient and Worshipful Law of Gallifrey from 20th Century Earth. He then accidentally transports Barbara from 322 BC, and she becomes a queen. This timeline is destroyed when the Doctor asks Barbara and Rhakotis to use the book.
[The Book of Shadows (Decalog). The year is given on page 155.]
Rhakotis's starship explodes before it reaches Earth.
[The Book of Shadows (Decalog). The year is given on page 194.]
c. 330 BC
The Doctor claims to have met Alexander the Great.
[The fourth Doctor claims this just after his regeneration in Robot (ep.1). Alexander lived from 356BC to 323BC. We've picked an arbitrary date in his lifetime.]
c. 300 BC
The first Doctor met Pyrrho the founder of scepticism.
[He mentions this in The Keys of Marinus. Since Susan is in the scene in question we can assume that this is not just a name-drop. Pyrrho lived from 360BC to 270BC, we've chosen an arbitrary date in his lifetime.]
c. 250 BC
When Archimedes said that, given a long enough lever and a place to stand, he could move the Earth, the Doctor pointed out that he hadn't explained what he would use as a fulcrum. This may have been the time when the Doctor acquired Archimedes' business card.
[Susan mentions the incident in City at World's End. The sixth Doctor has the business card in The Two Doctors. It's not clear how Archimedes could have had a business card, since the printing press did not exist. Archimedes lived between 287 BC and 212 BC.]
h. 218 BC
Hannibal crosses the Alps to invade Rome. En route, he uses vinegar to dissolve boulders.
[Harriet Jones mentions this in World War Three.]
c. 200 BC
The Doctor may have met Hannibal.
[The fourth Doctor claims this just after his regeneration in Robot. Hannibal lived from 247 BC to 182 BC.]
h. 27th March 195 BC
Ptolomy V Epiphanes, Pharaoh of Egypt, issues a royal decree. This decree is inscribed on a black basalt slab in three languages - Hieroglyphics, Greek, and Demotic.
[This, the Rosetta stone, is mentioned in Set piece (p. 125), the date is historical.]
r. March 107 BC
The Roman Empire expands to include Byzantium, although the city still retains some independence.
[This is said to have been 170 years before Byzantium! (p. 219), which would make it 106BC. It's also said that the Romans also began policing the city 200 years before (p.20), making it 136BC. We've gone with the first date.]
est. 100 BC
The Doctor may have visited the Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria.
[He mentions that it was kept going by slaves in Horror of Fang Rock, implying that he had visited it. The Great Lighthouse was built by 247BC and was abandoned sometime between 956AD and 1323AD. We've picked an arbitrary date for this event.]
c. 58 BC
Aulus Severus Glabrio meets Julius Caesar.
[Glabrio mentions this in State of Change (p. 25). No date is given, but he's 40 on the expedition to India and the meeting happened in his youth. Caesar lived 100 BC to 44 BC.]
h. 55 BC
Julius Caesar fails to conquer Britain.
[Ptolomy Caesar mentions this in State of Change (p. 20).]
Julius Caesar is made Dictator for life by the Roman Senate.
[According to the Doctor in State of Change (p. 89).]
State of Change
Cleopatra sails down the Nile in a dry run for her meeting with Mark Anthony in Tarsus.
[The date is given on page 7.]
c. 40 BC
The Doctor meets a captain in Cleopatra's bodyguard, who shows him a few points. The Doctor would later describe this captain “as the finest swordsman I ever saw”.
[The fourth Doctor claims this in The Masque of Mandragora. The famous Cleopatra (actually Cleopatra VII) lived from 68 BC to 30 BC, and we've picked an arbitrary date in that range.]
State of Change
The entity Iam attempts to copy the Doctor's TARDIS console. He also copies an area of Earth that includes Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. He provides the necessary conditions for life to continue on this new discworld.
[This happens in Chapter 1. The divergence appears to be shortly before the battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Doctor gives the date (p. 221).]
Octavius defeats Mark Anthony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium. Within a year, they are both dead, and Octavius is well on the way to becoming Augustus Caesar. Marcus Agrippa would write an account of the battle.
[This is the Doctor's summary of (real) events in State of Change (p.45), and he gives the year. Ian reads Marcus Agrippa's account in Byzantium! (p.101)]
c. 24 BC
Augustus Caesar takes direct control of Byzantium's land in Bithynia, and stations a garrison in the city, although it remains technically independent.
[According to Byzantium! (p. 219). This is said to be early in the reign of Augustus, which was from 27 BC till 14 AD.]
h. 14 BC
Tiberius Caesar becomes Roman Emperor, succeeding his stepfather Augustus.
[Jesus is correctly said to have lived during their respective reigns thirty or forty years before Byzantium! (p. 51).]
ALT c. 10 BC
State of Change
The copy of the TARDIS console is discovered by Cleopatra's navy. It becomes known as the oracle, and provides them with advanced technology. The first new technology, steamships, enable Cleopatra and Mark Anthony to win the battle of Actium in 31 BC. They found the Romano-Egyptian Dominion in 29 BC, starting a new calendar. Ptolomy Caesar, son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra, leads an expedition to India in 23 BC and discovers the end of the world. Mark Anthony dies in 16 BC and Cleopatra in 14 BC.
Cleopatra's children Ptolomy Caesar, Cleopatra Selene, and Alexander Helios take over ruling the Dominion. By 10 BC the Dominion has acquired steamships, firearms, electric lighting, airships, radio, telescopes, PA systems, and explosives. Rome has developed atomic power (they tested the bomb in 9 BC), and Egypt has developed aeroplanes. There is a power-play between the three rulers, partly at the gladiatorial games. This comes to a head when Cleopatra's air force attacks Rome and ends when Cleopatra's Royal Airship explodes. In the aftermath it emerges that Alexander is dead, Cleopatra is much reduced in power, and Ptolomy becomes the most powerful ruler.
[The Doctor estimates that it is 10 BC (p. 41). The dates for the founding of the Dominion and Cleopatra and Mark Anthony's deaths are from Cleopatra's tomb (p. 45). We can count from the battle of Actium, 31 BC (p. 45), when Caesarion is about 15 (p. 17). We find the expedition to India happens when he isn't yet 24 (p. 20) - so about 23 BC, and the main story happens when he is 37 (p. 51) - so about 9 BC. On the other hand, it took 3 years from Cleopatra's death to resolve a dispute over her remains (p. 98), and the agreement is only just being implemented, which suggests that it's 11 BC.]
c. 40 AD
The Roman Emperor Caligula builds a temple of Isis at around the same time as he makes his horse a Senator.
[According to Byzantium! (p. 198). No date is stated for either event, but Caligula reigned from 37 to 41 AD.]
h. 43 AD
Roman Emperor Claudius Caesar invades Britannia. One of the legionnaires in the invasion force is Gaius Calaphilus, who will later rise to the rank of General.
[This was twenty years before Byzantium! (p. 89), so early 44 AD or later 43 AD. We meet Gaius Calaphilus in that novel. Historically, the invasion was in 43 AD.]
c. 44 AD
By this time, the Zealots had begun sicarii attacks in Byzantium.
[They started over 20 years before Byzantium! (p. 68). The book doesn't explain why a group of Jewish nationalists would be staging terrorist attacks so far from Judea.]
r. March 48 AD
Benjamin is born.
[He is 16 in Byzantium!]
r. March 49 AD
At this time, Captain Drusus Felinistius is in charge of a murder squad in Judea. He believes that this squad is the most feared and respected in the Empire.
[This was 15 years before Byzantium! (p. 216).]
r. March 50 AD
Iola is born to Georgiadus and Evangeline.
[She is six months younger than Vicki (aged 14) in Byzantium! (p. 115).]
h. 51 AD
Gaius Calaphilus is present at the defeat of Caratacus, King of the British Catuvellauni tribe.
[He mentions this in Byzantium! (p. 89). No date is given, so we're going with the historical date.]
h. 54 AD
The Emperor Claudius dies, and is succeeded by Nero.
[A decade before Byzantium! (p. 18). 54 AD is historically accurate.]
c. 54 AD
Christianity reaches Byzantium. One of the earliest converts is a Jewish girl named Ruth. A local Jewish leader called Hieronymous bar Johoiachin arranges for her to be stoned to death.
[According to Byzantium! (p. 39).]
r. March 59 AD
A group of Zealots begin a rebellion in Byzantium.
[This was five years ago, according to Byzantium! (p. 272). It's never explained why a Jewish rebellion would happen in a Greek city that is hundreds of miles from the Holy Land.]
r. March 60 AD
Benjamin's father is executed by the Romans.
[This happened when he was 12, and in Byzantium! he is 16 (p. 41).]
r. March 62 AD
Jacob Besallas is killed by the Romans. His sons, Matthew and Simeon, carry on leading the Byzantine Zealots.
[Two years before Byzantium! (p. 42).]
c. 62 AD
Prasutagas, king of the Iceni tribe, dies. He passes his land jointly to his daughters and the Roman Empire. Roman agents attempt to assert direct rule and rape Prasutagas' daughters whilst Governor Paulinus was fighting in Wales. Prasutagas' widow, Boudicca, who had been flogged, tries and executes the rapists, mutilating and displaying their bodies. She declares war on the Romans, and is soon joined by the Trinovantes.
[This is from John Smith's history lesson in Human Nature (novel) (p. 40), which dates Boudicca's rebellion as circa 62 AD.]
c. 62 AD
The Iceni attack Camulodunum, Verulanium, and Londinium. They massacre the inhabitants and burn the cities to the ground. Governor Suetonius Paulinus, whose forces include General Gaius Calaphilus, defeat them at Manduessedum. Boudicca commits suicide.
[According to Human Nature (novel) which gives the later place names of Colchester, St Albans, and London (p. 40-41). Gaius Calaphilus mentions he was there in Byzantium! (p. 49) and even comments on the causes (p.18), which he dates as two years ago (hence 62 AD).]
r. June 63 AD
Agrinella divorces Governor Thalius Maximus and marries Senator Germanicus Vinicius. Her ex-husband marries lady Jocelyn.
[The divorce is less than a year before Byzantium! (p. 54). We've arbitrarily decided to say this was nine months before.]
r. Feburary 64 AD
Seneca, prefect of Pompeii, dies. He is replaced by Tigellinus.
[This happened a month before Byzantium! (p. 47).]
14th March 64 AD
The TARDIS materialises [near Rome or Byzantium] and falls off a cliff.
[This is the final scene of The Rescue. The following TV story (The Romans) strongly implies that this is near Rome and is somewhere between late May and mid June, 64 AD. The short story Romans Cutaway (Short Trips) - which follows immediate on - agrees. However, the novel Byzantium! - which also follows immediately on - places it near Byzantium, and the TARDIS says that they arrived on 14th March 64 AD. Note that all three stories include a reprise of this scene.]
March 64 AD
In Byzantium there is a Zealot attack in the marketplace. Over one hundred and sixty people die in the resulting chaos. One survivor, a Briton, is taken into the household of Senator Thalius Maximus. He helps forge an alliance between Thalius and General Gaius Calaphilus. The two men discover treason, and begin a purge of the city. This results in much bloodshed, merely a week after the incident in the marketplace. At the same time, Hieronymous bar Jehoiachin, a Jewish leader, is subject to scandal after taking a Gentile woman into his home. A Greek family get into trouble for adopting a troublesome teenaged orphan, and some local Christians are helped by a stranger in their efforts to put together Mark's gospel from scraps of parchment.
[This is set between the last scene of The Rescue and the start of The Romans. However, it contradicts Romans Cutaway (More Short Trips), which fits the scenario at the start of The Romans much better. The TARDIS yearometer gives the date they arrive as 14th March 64 AD (p. 28). This is several days before the main body of the book, which takes place over sixteen days.]
r. 19th June 64 AD
Romans Cutaway (Short Trips)
A lion attacks the servant in charge of a Roman villa. The dying man asks the Doctor to watch over the villa until his master returns. The lion dies when Ian drops a rock on it.
[This is clearly set between the last scene of The Rescue and the start of The Romans. In The Romans, they have been in the villa for about a month. The story actually includes a scene immediately after the TARDIS's arrival, as well as the scene with the lion. However, Byzantium! forces us to believe that the two scenes are months apart, and in entirely different parts of the Roman empire, though we haven't separated the two parts in this listing.]
h. 19th July 64 AD
The first Doctor, Ian, Barbara and Vicki spent a month resting in a villa near Rome. The Doctor and Vicki then visited Nero's court, where the Doctor was mistaken for a Lyre player. Meanwhile, Ian and Barbara were briefly captured by slave traders. Nero Caesar decided to burn down Rome, inspired by the Doctor's accidental burning of plans for a new Rome.
[Whilst the story takes place over several days, we've only listed the historical date of the Great Fire of Rome, which happens at the end of the story.]
c. 66 AD
The War Lords kidnapped a Roman legion.
[The War Games / The Eight Doctors. The troops recognise Picts, (so it's after the invasion of Britain) Gauls, and Romans. In The Eight Doctors, Christianity is a new religion and the Emperor thinks it's a problem; so this was probably not that long after 62AD, which is when Emperor Nero started persecuting Christians.]
In Rome, construction begins on The Colosseum.
[According to the Doctor in State of Change (p. 187).]
h. 70 AD
A Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire effectively ends with the fall of Jerusalem and the total destruction of the Temple. The few remaining Zealots retreat to the fortress of Masada, where they will hold out for another three years.
[This is mentioned in The Last Days (Short Trips). The date is not given, so we've used the historical one.]
h. 73 AD
The Last Days (Short Trips)
Jewish rebels besieged in Masada commit suicide when they finally realise that there is no chance of escape. Due to the interference of Ian Chesterton the rebels had killed an extra 107 Roman soldiers and, for a while, looked as if they might win. Ian, Barbara and two Jewish women survived the siege. Ian and Barbara were saved from death when the Doctor, who had been in the Roman camp, claimed they were his spies.
[No date is given, so we've gone with history.]
c. 73 AD
Byzantium finally becomes part of a Roman Province, losing even its nominal independence.
[According to Barbara in Byzantium! (p. 29).]
est. 100 AD
A Roman Soldier is thrown into the early 21st century by the Cardiff rift.
[We see him in End of Days. The armour is not accurate for any period of the Roman Empire. He is thought to have come from a Roman fort in Gelligaer, which was built in 75AD. Presumably the fort remained there for much of the period of Roman rule in Wales, so we have gone for a couple of decades after the fort was constructed.]
c. 125 AD
This was the heyday of gladiatorial combat.
[In State of Change (p. 197), the Doctor claims that this was a century or two in the future from around 50 BC.]
The Roman Emperor at this time was Antonius Pius. His rule could be described as a "Golden Age".
[According to the Doctor in State of Change (p. 7).]
est. 200 AD
Scaroth's sixth segment posed as a Roman Emperor.
[City of Death. There is no information to suggest which emperor, so we've picked an entirely arbitrary date.]
c. 272 AD
The Doctor saved two Aristophanes plays from the fire that destroyed the Great Library of Alexandria.
[According to Timewyrm: Apocalypse (p. 48). It is not known for certain when (or how) the Great Library was destroyed, but the last historical evidence for it is from 260 AD, and that part of the city was destroyed in a battle in 272 AD. So we've gone with that date.]
c. 300 AD
The Cult of Demnos was believed to have died out by this point.
[They are said to have died out in the third century in The Masque of Mandragora.]
h. 11th May 330 AD
Byzantium is renamed Constantinople.
[According to Barbara (in Byzantium!, p. 29) this happens in 200 years time (making it 264 AD). However, Constantine, (Emperor from 274 to 337 – who is named after) actually changed the name on 11th May 330, having made it the joint capital in 324. This is mentioned, but not dated, in Shadowmind (p. 32). Since Constantine actually appears in The Council of Nicea, We've stuck with the historical date.]
c. 350 AD
The inhabitants of a Roman villa in the valley three miles north-west of [the future location of] Llanfer Ceriog disappear. They form the initial human inhabitants of the land of Tír Na n-Óg. They quickly get involved in a thousand-year war with the other species, before becoming friends for centuries.
[According to Cat's Cradle: Witch Mark this was the fourth century. We've arbitrarily dated it in the middle of the century.]
c. 400 AD
The Rani kidnaps Hypatia for her Time Brain.
[Mentioned in Time and the Rani. Hypatia was born somewhere between 350AD and 370AD and died in 415AD. We've gone with an arbitrary date in that range.]